From: Reviving the Broken Marionette: Treatments for CFS/ME and Fibromyalgia


Immune dysfunction is an integral part of CFS/ME.6,7 In the United States the illness is sometimes called CFIDS, for chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome. Some patients get all the infections; others never even catch a cold. Swelling of lymph nodes and fever may be chronic or intermittent. Allergic symptoms may include food and chemical allergies and intolerances, chronic rhinitis and urticaria (hives). Bladder problems and IBS are common.


Most patients have neurological symptoms, which can include paresthesias (abnormal sensations), impaired coordination and balance, tremor, tinnitus, photophobia (sensitivity to light), hyperacuity (sensitivity to noise), vertigo, visual disturbances, nystagmus and epileptic seizures.


Depression and anxiety are often of neurological origin. Sleep disorders are very prevalent.


Cardiac and circulatory problems such as tachycardia and palpitations are common. The usual pattern is high pulse combined with a low blood pressure. Nearly all patients suffer from orthostatic hypotension.


Some cannot even sit up because of this. Other common symptoms include e.g. nausea, hair loss, dizziness, PMS, dyspnea, muscle tension, sexual problems, edema, hot and cold intolerance, night sweats, hypoglycemia, and rashes.



There are dozens if not hundreds of different theories about the etiology of CFS/ME, though most of them are connected. It is now widely accepted that most if not all cases of CFS/ME have an infectious origin, but it is not clear whether this is a chronic infection or a postinfectious state (see CHAPTER 5 for more information). Most theories about the cause of symptoms (such as cardiomyopathy and hypercoagulation) do implicate an infectious agent.

Almost all theories also connect to poor circulation. Postulated causes include hypovolemia (low blood volume), orthostatic hypotension or other dysautonomic states, hypercoagulation, poor erythrocyte deformability and combinations of these. Reduced circulation to brain and other organs could explain virtually all symptoms. Blood perfusion in the brain, especially in the brainstem, has been shown to be impaired in CFS/ME.8


CFS/ME is not generally considered an autoimmune illness, but autoimmunity could still contribute to its symptoms. Several autoantibodies have been detected more commonly compared to healthy controls.


These include e.g. gangliosides, phospholipids and serotonin.9 Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are found in a subset of CFS/ME patients. In one study over 50% of CFS/ME patients had autoantibodies to muscarinic cholinergic receptors.10


Mitochondrial dysfunction has also been proposed and muscle biopsies have provided evidence of it.11 One theory proposes that CFS/ME is a channelopathy (an illness caused by abnormal ion channel function).12


Oxidative stress may also play a part.13 Several toxins have been associated with CFS/ME, including organophosphates and ciguatera toxin.14


CFS takes different forms
What works for some not for others
Also new names
As no one knows, many treatments, some theories and methods fringe
Find commonality and treat all possibilities at once or in logical non interfering order

had it progressly since highschool? (many times low energy)

lok into sunken features discoloration of skin bluegreen indicates liver, milk thistle injections for cfs and bile ducts clear and trampoline


From: 'Fresh evidence points to a cause and possible treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome'


For 70% of CFS/ME patients, their disease is preceded by an infection, usually glandular fever, caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Dr Montoya ordered further tests, which revealed that the patient had high levels of antibodies to cytomegalovirus and human herpes virus 6. 


Montoya has been involved in some small breakthroughs. In 2014, a brain imaging study of 15 patients with CFS/ME found distinct differences to 14 healthy controls[2]. In the front, right side of the brain there is “a band of fibres that is thicker” in patients with CFS/ME, says Montoya. This is more pronounced in sicker patients and could serve as biomarker for the disease, he adds.


In 2015, research published in Science found that during the first three years of the disease, patients had elevated levels of interferon gamma, a cytokine released in response to viral infections and which the researchers say is consistent with the hypothesis of a viral trigger or of immune system dysregulation[3]. In collaboration with Columbia University, New York, Montoya is now helping to examine an extensive panel of 51 cytokines.


In separate findings at Cornell University, New York, researchers have identified changes in the gut microbiome and inflammatory microbial markers in blood samples taken from patients with CFS/ME. Using this information, the researchers correctly distinguished 83% of patients from healthy controls, which they say offers non-invasive diagnosis and a step towards understanding the cause of the disease[4].


From: 'Antibody wipeout found to relieve chronic fatigue syndrome


Patients have very low anaerobic pressure, and produce waste lactate earlier, which stops muscles working, says Mella.



Cardiac abnormalities (nocturnal heart rate variability,  small left ventricle, abnormally low blood volumes, postural tachycardia, short QT interval). 



Blood pressure neurally mediated hypotension (NMH)


From: From: 'What Causes Chronic Fatigue Syndrome? Clues as to Causes for CFS'

Frequently have impaired NK and T cell functions and numbers, suggesting chronic immune activity may be exhausting and depleting them.


Several studies have shown irregularities in the immune systems of people with ME/CFS, but researchers have not found a consistent pattern of abnormalities. Among the most common are allergies and an overactive immune system.


Some studies have reported that a majority of ME/CFS patients are allergic to things including pollen, foods and metals such as nickel and mercury. That's led to a theory that allergens may trigger a series of immune abnormalities which then lead to ME/CFS.


One theory is that allergies, stress and infection may combine to deplete a chemical called adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which stores energy in cells. Some ME/CFS patients show evidence of decreased ATP production.


Some ME/CFS patients have high levels of a substance called cytokines, which scientists theorize could cause symptoms of ME/CFS, including fatigue and muscle aches. Various studies have reported T cell imbalances in people with ME/CFS, but other studies have not confirmed the T cell and cytokine abnormalities.


Chronic fatigue syndrome appears to have a few features in common with autoimmune diseases such as lupus or multiple sclerosis, in which the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy parts of the body. A growing body of research suggests ME/CFS may be autoimmune.


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