SOWA Ontology
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The SOWA Ontology is a core semantic model for understanding concepts in EATS. It defines a set of elements with a technically precise set of semantic meanings and conceptual relationships that define fundamental elements for understanding the nature of things via the attribution of semantic categorization of abstract derivative terms to the objects being defined. For example, defining something to be abstract as opposed to defining it to be physical and the manner which that affects reasoning about the defined object. The core semantic specification of the ontology was accomplished by John Sowa and adapted to its function in EATS.by Joe Van Steen.

References
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  • John Sowa: Ontology "The subject of ontology is the study of the categories of things that exist or may exist in some domain. The product of such a study, called an ontology, is a catalog of the types of things that are assumed to exist in a domain of interest D from the perspective of a person who uses a language L for the purpose of talking about D. The types in the ontology represent the predicatesword senses, or concept and relation types of the language L when used to discuss topics in the domain D. An uninterpreted logic, such as predicate calculus, conceptual graphs, or KIF, is ontologically neutral. It imposes no constraints on the subject matter or the way the subject may be characterized. By itself, logic says nothing about anything, but the combination of logic with an ontology provides a language that can express relationships about the entities in the domain of interest."
  • John Sowa: Ontology, Metadata, and Semiotics "The Internet is a giant semiotic system. It is a massive collection of Peirce's three kinds of signs: icons, which show the form of something; indices, which point to something; and symbols, which represent something according to some convention. But current proposals for ontologies and metadata have overlooked some of the most important features of signs. A sign has three aspects: it is (1) an entity that represents (2) another entity to (3) an agent. By looking only at the signs themselves, some metadata proposals have lost sight of the entities they represent and the agents — human, animal, or robot — which interpret them. With its three branches of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, semiotics provides guidelines for organizing and using signs to represent something to someone for some purpose. Besides representation, semiotics also supports methods for translating patterns of signs intended for one purpose to other patterns intended for different but related purposes. This article shows how the fundamental semiotic primitives are represented in semantically equivalent notations for logic, including controlled natural languages and various computer languages."
  • John Sowa: Guided Tour of Ontology "This web page organizes some of the papers on this web site in a systematic reading list. Paper #1 presents a general overview of ontology and ongoing work in developing and applying ontologies to modern computer systems. The remaining papers address more specialized topics. The final paper is a tutorial on the mathematics and logic commonly used in publications about ontology and knowledge representation. All bibliographical references can be found in the combined bibliography for this web site."
  • John Sowa: Building Sharing, and Merging Ontologies "For centuries, philosophers have sought universal categories for classifying everything that exists, lexicographers have sought universal terminologies for defining everything that can be said, and librarians have sought universal headings for storing and retrieving everything that has been written. During the 1970s, the ANSI SPARC committee proposed the three-schema architecture for defining and integrating the database systems that manage the world economy. Today, the semantic web has enlarged the task to the level of classifying, labeling, defining, finding, integrating, and using everything on the World Wide Web, which is rapidly becoming the universal repository for all the accumulated knowledge, information, data, and garbage of humankind. This talk surveys the issues involved, the approaches that have been successfully applied to small systems, and the ongoing efforts to extend them to distributed, interconnected, rapidly growing, heterogeneous systems."
  • Sowa Ontology